Whole plant imaging of Photosystem II up to 1000 frames/s


PlantExplorer measures fluorescence imagesat millisecond time scale providing the 0-, J-, I-and P-level of the Kautsky induction curve of Photosystem II. Fluorescence parameters are calculated per pixel and displayed as images. Multispectral images are captured using the same optical layout as for the fluorescence images and an optical filter wheel. This yields images of the Chl-index (correlates with the amount of chlorophyll), Ant-index (correlates with the amount of anthocyanin), NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), NIR and colour.

Measuring fluorescence and spectral images of whole plants using high speed camera imaging and modulated LED excitation

  • Camera frame rate up to 1000 images/s at 14 bit Exposure time of camera as short as 5 μs
  • All LED light sources for red, far-red, white and NIR
  • Built-in computer for timed imaging, light control and data storage Pixel-to-pixel information on fluorescence and multispectral

Captured images

  • 1000 fluorescence images in 1s
  • In darkness: F0, FJ, FI, FM
  • In the light: Ft’, FJ’, FI’, and FM’
  • Spectral images at 6 bands
  • Imaged area 20×20 cm2
  • High Depth of Field (DOF)

Images of plants on multiple parameters

  • Fv/FM=φPo=(FM-F0)/FM(maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry)
  • φEo=(FM-FJ)/FM (quantum yield of electron transport)
  • φRo=(FM-FI)/FM(quantum yield of reduction of end acceptors of PSI)
  • tFM(time at FM)
  • A (area above induction curve) and Sm (area normalized on FM-F0)
  • PIabs(performance index)
  • φPSII=φPt=Fq’/FM’=(FM’-Ft’)/FM’ (effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry)
  • ETR (Electron Transport Rate)
  • NPQ, F0’, qN, qP and Rfd
  • Chl-index, Ant-index, NIR, NDVI, colour in red, green and blue
  • Raw 16 bit format on all captured images for using open source or other software